Plantar warts (prickles, plantar warts) are benign neoplasms caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV). They arise mainly in young people and do not pose a particular danger, since the degree of their oncogenicity is too low.
But, nevertheless, to remove growths, it is better to consult a dermatologist. Modern instrumental methods of excision of warts are much more effective than banal celandine, and even surgical intervention, but they are used solely as prescribed by the attending physician.
Such therapy reduces the risk of recurrence of the pathological process to a minimum, as well as prevents further rooting and reproduction of skin tumors on the soles of the feet.
A wart is a skin tumor that has a benign nature. The occurrence of the spinosa is due to the penetration of the human papilloma virus into the human body, of which there are about 100 varieties.
After penetration into the human body, HPV may not give out anything for a long time, being in a "sleeping" state. But as soon as favorable conditions are created for him, he activates and immediately begins to multiply, affecting at first the soft tissues, and then the layers of the dermis, which sooner or later leads to the formation of warts.
The "sleeping" state of HPV is due to:
- strong immunity;
- phagocytosis (specific protective reaction that is activated when the pathological agents penetrate into the human body).
The risk of HPV infection depends on:
- the condition in which the virus is found in the infected person’s body;
- the nature of the contact (direct / indirect);
- HPV carrier immunity status.
People with weak immunity are most susceptible to papillomatosis. But other factors can also affect the formation of plantar warts:
- constant stress;
- non-compliance with the rules of hygiene;
- depletion of the body;
- uncomfortable or tight shoes;
- wounds, scratches, ulcers on the surface of the skin of the feet.
HPV can penetrate the human body through:
- use of towels or other items belonging to the carrier of the virus;
The factors predisposing to the formation of spines, include:
- increased sweating feet;
- frequent contact with household chemicals (even if the washed laundry was well rinsed);
- injuries that lead to the violation of the integrity of the skin of the legs;
- calluses, corns;
- endocrine and cardiovascular diseases;
- using non-sterile nail care tools;
- visiting public baths, saunas, swimming pools, beaches.
Human skin consists of several layers, which are:
- subcutaneous fat.
Once in the human body, the papilloma virus infects the basal layer of the epidermis (skin) and begins to multiply actively. The cells affected by the papillomavirus gradually rise through all the scraps of the epidermis, eventually being localized on the horny layer of the epithelium. Thus, the coarsening and keratinization of the skin, which forms the wart.
The incubation period for each person lasts differently. On average, it ranges from a few weeks to six months. During this time, the number of cells infected with the virus is rapidly increasing. But since the DNA gene of that type of HPV, which causes the onset of a plantar wart, does not penetrate into the cell nucleus, the risk of developing an oncological process is almost completely excluded.
Plantar wart is a hard skin tumor with clear boundaries and oval or rounded shape. The size of growth varies within 1-2 cm in diameter. A prickle has a rod extending deep into the layers of the dermis, and it is he who, when walking, causes discomfort and pain. It protrudes approximately 1-3 cm above the skin surface. In this case, the neoplasm may have a normal color, or light brown or pinkish tint.
At the initial stage of the formation of skin growth, its surface is smooth, however, as it "ripens", its roughening occurs, as a result of which it becomes rough. Its shade becomes gray-yellow, and a crater-like depression may appear in the center. The occurrence of brown spots on the surface of the plantar warts is also considered to be frequent. They appear due to the process of thrombosis of the superficial capillaries in the neoplasm.
In most cases, plantar warts are single growths. However, in some situations, the formation of daughter-sized spitzs is possible, which indicates an excessive activity of the papillomavirus. A large number of neoplasms creates a specific mosaic pattern in the area of the skin where they are localized, therefore they are also called “mosaic warts”.
Sometimes the spineta can disappear by itself, without the need for treatment. In this case, a person does not have a trace in the place where it was localized. However, this is not often the case, since the foot is the place where the tumor is often injured. As a result, its self-destruction becomes almost impossible. On the contrary, it can constantly become inflamed, bleed and cause pain.
What plantar warts look like: photo
To understand what a spike on a foot looks like in an adult, you can view the photos below.
In most cases, it is not necessary to carry out any diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of plantar warts - diagnosis is based on a visual examination by a dermatologist of the affected areas of the foot.
However, if there is a need to choose a method for removing skin tumors, a laboratory test of a scraping from the surface of the spike may be needed.
How to treat plantar warts: basic principles
Often, local treatment is enough for the treatment of plantar warts. However, if the virus is too active and there are affiliated neoplasms, a systemic therapy can be prescribed by a doctor based on the use of antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. They help to suppress the activity of papillomavirus and strengthen the immune system, which, in turn, helps prevent deeper penetration of HPV and damage to healthy areas of the skin.
However, preference is still given to topical treatment, which not only removes the upper part of the spike, but also removes its core. But it should be noted immediately that the use of well-known folk remedies for warts is often not very successful, so it is better, nevertheless, to seek help from a dermatologist, to be examined and followed by treatment.
The most effective and frequently used methods for treating plantar warts include:
- Chemical degradation. With the help of special medication drugs, cauterization of skin tumors is carried out, which leads to the complete destruction of the structure of their tissues. It is on the cauterizing properties of certain herbs and remedies that the treatment of the spines with the help of folk remedies is based.
- Use of cytostatic drugs for local use. Means based on 5-fluorouracil, as well as Kolhamin, Podofillin and others ointments have the highest effect.
- Freezing Plantar Wart with Liquid Nitrogen. This procedure is called cryodestruction. With the help of a special apparatus, where the necessary preparation is being filled, the freezing of the build-up is carried out (the temperature of exposure reaches -220 ° C) and its subsequent removal. Manipulation is performed under local anesthesia and requires careful skin care after the end.
- Surgical intervention. In this case, resorting to the process of scraping warts with a special medical device - Volkmann's spoon. Perhaps an ordinary excision of the spitz with an ordinary scalpel, but this procedure has long been outdated.
In addition to the above manipulations, the removal of plantar warts is carried out using modern instrumental techniques. Among them, the most popular are:
- Laser coagulation, which helps get rid of skin growths in just 1 session.
- Electrocoagulation. With the help of a special electric scalpel, the spinel is carefully removed. After the procedure, wounds and small scars may remain, so they are not used as often as laser coagulation.
- Radio wave removal of plantar warts. Manipulation is performed through the use of ultrasonic frequencies emitted by the Surgitron preparation. The procedure is as popular as cryodestruction or laser coagulation.
- Ozone therapy.
Instrumental removal of plantar warts can be supplemented by local therapy, while using drugs that have antiviral effect. This combination of means helps to significantly reduce the risk of recurrence of the pathological process, significantly increasing the overall effectiveness of treatment. For this, the patient is prescribed ointment or subcutaneous injection of interferon, as well as applications with Proteflazid.
Before using medication drugs, a course of treatment is required, aimed at softening the stratum corneum of the epidermis on the surface of the spike. For this purpose, keratolytics are used, which, however, do not remove the growth itself, therefore they are not suitable as an independent remedy for papillomatosis. You can use not only the ointment - most often doctors recommend to glue corn or bactericidal patches (Salipod). A few days are enough to soften the wart, after which you can proceed directly to the main treatment.
Since the spinea is prone to frequent inflammation, and the risk of attaching a secondary infection is too high, the patient may need to use antibacterial or anti-inflammatory medications. However, in this case, a special place is given to local treatment.
Removal of plantar warts with a laser
Today, laser coagulation is one of the most popular and highly effective instrumental methods for removing plantar warts. There are several types of carbon dioxide laser, with the help of which the destruction of skin tumors. Due to this, for each type of growth a separate type of laser is used, which contributes to the complete excision of the wart and the prevention of its new appearance in the treated place.
The principle of the laser beam is simple. Due to high temperatures, evaporation of fluids from plantar wart tissues occurs, as a result of which they necrosis. And although this process takes some time, laser coagulation allows you to remove unaesthetic and painful neoplasms in just 1 procedure. The main advantage of this technique is not even its high efficiency, but the almost complete absence of contraindications and side effects. Minus - the high cost of the procedure, so not every patient can afford to perform it.
Only a qualified specialist - a dermatologist - can choose the best way to remove spines. He will also recommend how to prepare for the procedure, as well as suggest what measures need to be taken to prevent the recurrence of the plantar wart.
If the plantar wart has not yet had time to deeply root and coarsen, it can also be removed with the help of ready-made solutions and ointments, which can be freely dispensed in pharmacies. The composition of each of the funds includes alkali or acid, so you must strictly follow the instructions for use of the selected drug.
Among the most effective drugs for warts should be noted:
- SuperPistotel - a solution that contains sodium or potassium hydroxide, and contributes to the effective burning out of skin growths;
- Verrukacid is a domestic medicinal product intended to remove a number of benign lesions on the skin (warts, papillomas, genital warts, dry calluses, keratomas);
- Solcoderm - acids intended for external use in various manifestations of papillomatosis.
Another good remedy for spines is salicylic or boric acid, used in the form of ointments or applications.
In the arsenal of traditional medicine, there are also quite a few recipes that are highly effective in combating various types of warts - including plantar ones. But to use them as independent means is inexpedient - in most cases they must be combined with pharmaceutical medicines.
Here are the most effective recipes:
- Celandine juice. Perhaps this is one of the most popular and effective folk remedies used to treat various types of skin growths. Treat growths only with fresh juice 2-3 times a day until they disappear completely.
- Garlic juice. This tool has a powerful antiviral, bactericidal and anti-inflammatory effect. Before using it for the treatment of plantar warts, the growth must first be steamed and slightly incised, then smeared with garlic juice and wrapped with a bandage. The procedure is carried out daily. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks.
- Acetic acid. For the preparation of a therapeutic agent, it is necessary to insist the onion in acetic acid for 2-3 hours, after which make a compress and fix it with a bandage. Leave overnight.
- Gruel made from rowan berries.
However, the most effective tool in the fight against warts is not drugs, not the above recipes of traditional medicine, and not even modern instrumental methods of their removal, but a strong immune system. In people who had positive changes in their immune status, there were cases of self-disappearance of skin lesions on the feet.
It is possible to strengthen the immune system in many ways: sports, hiking in the fresh air, proper nutrition, avoiding bad habits, and, finally, special medication drugs - immunomodulators. Whatever it was, namely, stable and strong immunity is the key to the absolute health of the whole organism.
Primary prevention of plantar warts is aimed at preventing infection with HPV. For this you need:
- have individual shoes when visiting public pools, baths, saunas;
- use only your own towels and personal care products;
- wear comfortable shoes;
- struggle with sweating feet;
- handle any wounds, cracks and even minor scratches on the legs.
For secondary prophylaxis of plantar warts, it is necessary to strengthen the immune system using antiviral and immunomodulatory drugs. It is necessary to start taking medicines prescribed by a doctor immediately after the procedure to remove a skin tumor, which in itself is a stress for the body.
The therapeutic course is extremely necessary to complete, because its interruption will reduce all efforts to zero, so even the qualified specialist will not be able to eliminate the risk of re-formation of plantar warts.