Adenoids are found mainly in children from 3 to 12 years old and bring a lot of discomfort and hassle to both the children and their parents, therefore they require urgent treatment. Often the course of the disease is complicated, after which there is adenoiditis - inflammation of the adenoids.
Adenoids in children can occur in early preschool age and persist for several years. In high school, they usually shrink in size and gradually atrophy.
In adults, adenoids are not found: the symptoms of the disease are characteristic only for children. Even if you had this disease in your childhood, it does not return to adulthood.
Causes of adenoid development in children
What it is? Adenoids in the nose in children - this is nothing like the proliferation of tissue of the pharyngeal tonsil. This anatomical formation, which normally is part of the immune system. Nasopharyngeal amygdala, holds the first line of defense against various microorganisms seeking to get into the body with inhaled air.
With the disease, the amygdala increases, and when the inflammation subsides, it returns to its normal appearance. In the case when the time between diseases is too short (say, a week or even less), the growths do not have time to decrease. Thus, being in a state of constant inflammation, they expand even more and sometimes “swell” to such an extent that they cover the entire nasopharynx.
Pathology is most typical for children aged 3 - 7 years. Rarely diagnosed in children under one year. The overgrown adenoid tissue often undergoes reverse development, therefore, in adolescence and adulthood, adenoid vegetation practically does not occur. Despite this peculiarity, the problem cannot be ignored, since the overgrown and inflamed amygdala is a constant source of infection.
The development of adenoids in children is promoted by frequent acute and chronic diseases of the upper respiratory tract: pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis. The starting factor for the growth of adenoids in children can be infections - influenza, ARVI, measles, diphtheria, scarlet fever, whooping cough, rubella, etc. Syphilitic infection (congenital syphilis), tuberculosis can play a role in the growth of adenoids in children. Adenoids in children can occur as an isolated pathology of lymphoid tissue, but much more often they are combined with tonsillitis.
Among other reasons leading to the occurrence of adenoids in children, they secrete increased allergization of the child’s body, vitamin deficiencies, nutritional factors, fungal invasions, unfavorable social conditions, etc.
Symptoms of adenoids in the nose of a child
In normal condition, adenoids in children do not have symptoms that interfere with ordinary life - the child simply does not notice them. But as a result of frequent colds and viral diseases, adenoids tend to increase. This happens because in order to fulfill its immediate function of retaining and destroying microbes and viruses, the adenoids are amplified through proliferation. Inflammation of the tonsils - this is the process of destroying pathogenic microbes, which is the cause of the increase in gland size.
The main signs of adenoids include the following:
- frequent long runny nose, which is difficult to treat;
- difficulty in nasal breathing, even in the absence of a runny nose;
- persistent mucous discharge from the nose, which leads to irritation of the skin around the nose and on the upper lip;
- breaths with an open mouth, the lower jaw hangs at the same time, the nasolabial folds are smoothed, the face becomes indifferent;
- bad, restless sleep;
- snoring and snoring in a dream, sometimes - holding your breath;
- sluggish, apathetic condition, decrease in progress and efficiency, attention and memory;
- nighttime suffocation attacks characteristic of second to third degree adenoids;
- persistent dry cough in the morning;
- involuntary movements: nervous ticking and blinking;
- the voice loses its resonance, becomes dull, with hoarseness; lethargy, apathy;
- complaints of headache, which occurs due to lack of oxygen in the brain;
- hearing loss - the child often asks.
Modern otolaryngology divides adenoids into three degrees:
- 1 degree: adenoids in a child are small. In this day, the child breathes freely, difficulty breathing is felt at night, in a horizontal position. The child often sleeps, mouth open.
- Grade 2: adenoids in a child are significantly enlarged. The child has to breathe through his mouth all the time, at night he snores quite loudly.
- 3 degree: adenoids in a child completely or almost completely cover the nasopharynx. The child does not sleep well at night. Not being able to regain his strength during sleep, during the day he gets tired easily, attention scatters. He has a headache. He has to keep his mouth open all the time, as a result of which his facial features change. The nasal cavity ceases to be ventilated, a chronic rhinitis develops. The voice becomes nasal, speech - slurred.
Unfortunately, parents often pay attention to abnormalities in the development of adenoids only at stage 2-3, when nasal breathing is difficult or absent.
Adenoids in children: photos
As the adenoids look like in children, we offer for viewing detailed photos.
Treatment of adenoids in children
In the case of adenoids in children, there are two types of treatment - surgical and conservative. Whenever possible, doctors seek to avoid surgery. But in some cases you can't do without it.
Conservative treatment of adenoids in children without surgery is the most correct, priority direction in the treatment of hypertrophy of the pharyngeal tonsil. Before agreeing to surgery, parents should use all available treatment methods to avoid adenotomy.
If the ENT insists on the surgical removal of the adenoids - do not rush, this is not an urgent operation, when there is no time to think and additional monitoring and diagnosis. Wait, follow the child, listen to the opinion of other specialists, make a diagnosis a few months later and try all conservative methods.
Now, if the drug treatment does not give the desired effect, and the child has a persistent chronic inflammatory process in the nasopharynx, then consult with the operating physicians, those who make adenotomy, for consultation.
Grade 3 adenoids in children - to remove or not?
When choosing - adenotomy or conservative treatment can not rely solely on the degree of growth of the adenoids. With 1-2 degrees of adenoids, most believe that they do not need to be removed, and with grade 3, an operation is simply required. This is not quite true, it all depends on the quality of diagnosis, there are often cases of false diagnostics, when the examination is performed on the background of the disease or after a recent cold, the child is diagnosed with grade 3 and advised to remove adenoids promptly.
A month later, the adenoids noticeably decrease in size, as they were enlarged due to the inflammatory process, while the child breathes normally and does not get sick too often. And there are cases, on the contrary, with 1-2 degrees of adenoids, the child suffers from persistent acute respiratory viral infections, recurrent otitis, sleep occurs apnea syndrome - even 1-2 degrees can be an indication for the removal of adenoids.
Also about the adenoids 3 degrees will tell the famous pediatrician Komarovsky:
Comprehensive conservative therapy is used for moderate uncomplicated enlarged tonsils and includes medication, physical therapy, and breathing exercises.
The following drugs are usually prescribed:
- Antiallergic (antihistamine) - tavegil, suprastin. Used to reduce the manifestations of allergy, they eliminate the swelling of the tissues of the nasopharynx, pain and the amount of discharge.
- Antiseptics for topical use - collalar, protargol. These preparations contain silver and destroy pathogens.
- Homeopathy is the safest of the known methods, well combined with traditional treatment (although the effectiveness of the method is very individual - it helps someone well, weakly to someone).
- Rinsing. The procedure removes pus from the surface of the adenoids. It is performed only by a doctor using the cuckoo method (by introducing the solution into one nostril and its suction from the other with a vacuum) or nasopharyngeal shower. If you decide to do the washing at home, drive the pus even deeper.
- Physiotherapy. Effective quartz treatment of the nose and throat, as well as laser therapy with a light guide in the nasopharynx through the nose.
- Climatotherapy - treatment in specialized sanatoriums not only inhibits the growth of lymphoid tissue, but also has a positive effect on the children's body as a whole.
- Multivitamins to strengthen the immune system.
From physiotherapy, warming, ultrasound, ultraviolet are used.
Removal of adenoids in children
Adenotomy is the removal of the pharyngeal tonsils by surgical intervention. On how to remove adenoids in children, the best doctor will tell. In a nutshell, the pharyngeal tonsil is captured and cut off with a special instrument. This is done in one motion and the whole operation takes no more than 15 minutes.
An undesirable method of treating a disease for two reasons:
- First, adenoids quickly grow up and, if there is a predisposition to this disease, they will again and again become inflamed, and any operation, even as simple as an adenotomy, will cause stress to children and parents.
- Secondly, the pharyngeal tonsils perform a barrier-protective function, which is lost to the body as a result of the removal of the adenoids.
In addition, in order to conduct an adenotomy (that is, removal of the adenoids), it is necessary to have indications. These include:
- frequent recurrence of the disease (more than four times a year);
- recognized the ineffectiveness of the conservative treatment;
- appearance of respiratory arrest in a dream;
- the appearance of various complications (arthritis, rheumatism, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis);
- nasal breathing;
- very frequent repeated otitis;
- very frequent recurring colds.
It should be understood that the operation is a kind of undermining the immune system of a small patient. Therefore, for a long time after the intervention, it should be protected from inflammatory diseases. The postoperative period is necessarily accompanied by drug therapy - otherwise there is a risk of re-growth of the tissue.
Contraindications to adenotomy are some blood diseases, as well as skin and infectious diseases in the acute period.