Mite is a subclass of arthropods from the arachnid class, the body length of an average sized individual is 0.5 mm.
Activation of insects begins in spring and early summer, the risk of being bitten increases in warm, dry weather. When a bite through the wound anesthetic substance is injected into the body, as a result of which insect attacks pass for a person completely unnoticed.
Ticks are known as carriers of tick-borne encephalitis, borreliosis and other dangerous diseases. If a person is bitten by an infected tick, the virus quickly enters the bloodstream and infects the entire body.
At a distance of 10 to 15 m, these parasites feel that a person is walking. And at the paths, the tick waits more readily than in more often forests.
After the walk, inspect the body for ticks:
- the area that is located behind the ears of a person;
- neck, chest and armpits;
- groin and genitals;
The main danger to humans is infection with diseases carried by the tick:
- typhus typhus;
- tick-borne encephalitis;
- ku fever;
- Lyme disease.
At the site of the bite, there is redness and swelling in some cases, allergic reactions may occur.
Symptoms of a tick bite in a person
The tick has a peculiar organ - a hypostomy (proboscis), which pierces the skin of the victim and is fixed inside the wound with the help of special saliva, it also anesthetizes (this is why a person does not feel the moment of bite) and fixes the proboscis in the wound. The size of the tick is about 0.3-0.4 mm, the females are 1 mm larger. Sucking blood, the tick increases in size by 2-3 times.
You can highlight the main symptoms in humans associated with a tick bite, they can occur after 2-3 hours, namely:
- redness of the place, where the bite is;
- fear of the light;
- increased weakness and drowsiness;
- pain in the joints of a person.
The following symptoms of a tick bite in a person can be such factors:
- skin rashes;
- severe itching;
- an increase in human body temperature to 39-40 degrees Celsius;
- decrease in blood pressure;
- there is a clear tachycardia;
- you can see an increase in lymph nodes, namely regional.
In addition to these symptoms, it is necessary to take into account the presence of secondary signs that the tick provoked by its bite, namely:
- profuse vomiting;
- hoarse voice;
- heavy breathing and shortness of breath;
- severe headache, accompanied by dizziness;
- the presence of peculiar nervous disorders, for example: hallucinations.
Ticks are carriers of many diseases, including tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease), rickettsiosis and other infections. When you find a stuck tick - remove it as soon as possible! Tighten with the removal can not be. The longer the tick drinks blood, the more infection will enter the body.
The first signs of Borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis
Lyme Disease (Borreliosis):
- redness of the skin in the area of the parasite bite;
- a gradual increase in the size of the red spot;
- transforming redness from a round spot to a ring with a pale bluish center.
- general and muscular weakness in the neck, arms and legs;
- numbness in the neck and face;
- chills, fever;
- nausea, vomiting;
- severe headache;
- staining of the skin of the face, neck, oral mucosa and eyes in red.
When this symptom occurs, an infectious disease physician or polyclinic physician should be urgently referred to, to the emergency room of the infectious diseases hospital, and in case of a serious condition, an ambulance.
What a tick bite looks like in a person: photo
The area around the bite is pink to reddish, it depends on the reaction of the organism. In the center there will be a noticeable significant recess deep into the skin.If there is a redness on the bite, it may be a normal allergic reaction. But red spots that have a diameter of 10-12 cm can be a symptom of Lyme disease.
What to do when a tick bite?
Since the tick is a carrier of serious diseases, after returning home after going to the park or the forest, you should not immediately go to bed. It is important to carefully examine yourself and your loved ones for the presence of a tick on the body.
If a tick has been detected, then it should be removed from the human body as soon as possible. You can do this at home in several ways.
- You can try to "unscrew" the insect from the skin. In this case, the movement must be made counterclockwise. Keep the tick should be as close as possible to the skin to prevent rupture of the abdomen. Fingers with a bandage or gauze.
- Another option - the use of improvised means, such as threads of clothing. She needs to cover the proboscis as close as possible to the skin and, while performing swinging movements, slowly extract the tick. Some remove the tick with nails or matches.
If you have not had the opportunity to go to a medical facility and conduct a tick analysis, then it is advisable to monitor the injured person for a month.
It is also worth knowing that the incubation period for Lyme disease from the beginning of infection to the onset of symptoms is usually 1-2 weeks, but it can be much shorter (several days) or longer (from months to years). In the case of tick-borne encephalitis, it is considered that from the moment the virus enters the blood before the first manifestations of the disease, it takes from 1 day to a month. On average, the period is 1-3 weeks, since the forms of the development of the disease are different.
The effects of a tick bite on humans
The tick bite itself is not dangerous for humans. Serious consequences after a bite can occur only if the insect was infected.
A tick can be a source of a fairly large number of diseases, so by removing the tick, save it for research on tick-borne infections (tick-borne encephalitis, tick-borne borreliosis (Lyme disease), if there is a possibility for other infections), this can usually be done in an infectious diseases hospital. It should be understood that the presence of infection in a tick does not mean that a person will get sick. Analysis of the tick is needed for calm in case of a negative result and vigilance - in the case of a positive one.
Here is a list of diseases that a tick can transmit:
- Tick-borne encephalitis;
- Lyme borreliosis;
- Tick-borne hemorrhagic fevers;
- Tick-borne typhus;
- Pimped rickettsiosis;
- Tsutsugamushi fever;
- Q fever;
- Tick-borne paroxysmal rickettsiosis;
- Babesiosis man.
Most often found on the territory of Russia and represent a serious danger to human health - tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis. Of course, the probability of being infected by a tick bite is not too high, because 90% of the ticks, according to research, are sterile. However, it is present.
The effects of an encephalitis tick bite
- Persistent decline in quality of life with the progression of symptoms (continuous progression, abortive - recurrent).
- Persistent organic syndrome with a significant decrease in the quality of life in the form of a defect of motor functions without the progression of symptoms.
- Contribute to the progression of symptoms: drinking, stress, overwork, pregnancy, etc.). Prolonged persistent changes in the form of epilepsy, hyperkinesis - a reason for determining the III, II, I disability groups.
- Chronic weakness, lasting up to 2 months, followed by complete restoration of body functions.
- Infection of moderate severity with recovery up to 6 months.
- Severe infection with a recovery period of up to 2 years without paresis and paralysis.
- If you have saved a live tick for analysis, it will be accepted in the laboratory at the infectious diseases hospital or at the sanitary epidemiological station.
- If you are vaccinated against tick-borne encephalitis, then this gives protection against infection by the virus.
- 10 days after the bite, blood can be examined by the method of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for tick-borne encephalitis and borreliosis.
- After 14 days, blood is tested for antibodies to tick-borne encephalitis.
- Borreliosis antibodies can only be detected in the blood 30 days after infection.
Of course, you should not deprive yourself of the pleasure of walking outside the city under the canopy of trees, because ticks can overtake and in the city. Just going to the forest, you need to adhere to certain rules of prevention in order to protect yourself from these blood-sucking insects to the maximum:
- Avoiding places of accumulation of ticks, which prefer to live in wet thickets of plants.
- The exercise of extreme caution during the maximum activity of such dangerous insects is the period from early May to mid-September.
- Wearing closed clothes, and rubbing special creams and anti-tick bite products on the open areas of the body, which will not allow insects to have access to an open human body.
Prevention of the effects of tick bites is based on:
- Vaccination (prophylactic measure), when a person is infected, it cannot be used.
- Specific immunotherapy is a therapeutic measure (administration of immunoglobulin only during infection or suspected infection after a bite).
- The use of special clothing and accessories to prevent ticks on the body.
- Using means to scare away, destroy ticks.
- Health insurance to pay for possible treatment.
Also remember that when you bite, the infection is usually not immediately transmitted. The longer the tick stays on the body, the greater the chances of getting encephalitis or borreliosis.