Complete blood count is perhaps the most common method of laboratory diagnosis. In modern civilized society, there is practically no one person who would not have to repeatedly donate blood for a general analysis.
After all, this study is carried out not only sick, but also quite healthy people with planned medical examinations at work, in educational institutions, military service.
This blood test includes determining the concentration of hemoglobin, the number of leukocytes and counting leukocyte formula, determining the number of erythrocytes, platelets, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and other indicators.
Due to the correct interpretation of the results of the general blood test, it is possible to establish the cause of certain symptoms in adults, to determine the type of blood disease, internal organs, to choose the correct treatment regimen.
What it is?
The general (developed) blood test includes:
- Hemoglobin and hematocrit.
- The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which was formerly called the reaction (ROE).
- The color index calculated by the formula, if the study was conducted manually, without the participation of laboratory equipment;
- Determination of the content of cellular elements of the blood: red blood cells - red blood cells, hemoglobin containing the pigment, which determines the color of the blood, and leukocytes that do not contain this pigment are therefore called white blood cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes).
As you can see, the complete blood count shows the response of this valuable biological fluid to any processes occurring in the body. With regard to the correct delivery of the analysis, there are no complicated, strict instructions about this testing, but there are certain limitations:
- The analysis carried out in the morning. The patient is forbidden to eat food and water 4 hours before a blood sample is taken.
- The main medical supplies used for blood collection are scarificator, cotton wool, and alcohol.
- For this examination, use of capillary blood, which is taken from the finger. Less commonly, on doctor's instructions, blood from a vein may be used.
After receiving the results, a detailed transcript of the blood test is performed. There are also special hematological analyzers with which you can automatically determine up to 24 blood parameters. These devices are capable of displaying a printout with the transcript of the blood test almost immediately after blood collection.
Complete blood count: normal values in the table
The table shows the indicators of the normal number of blood elements. In different laboratories, these values may differ, therefore, to determine whether the blood test parameters are exactly normal, you need to know the reference values of the laboratory in which the blood test was conducted.
Table of normal blood counts in adults:
|Analysis:||Adult women:||Adult men:|
|Hemoglobin||120-140 g / l||130-160 g / l|
|Red blood cells||3,7-4,7×1012||4-5,1×1012|
|White blood cells||4-9×109||4-9×109|
|ESR||2-15 mm / h||1-10 mm / h|
|Average red blood cell volume||78-94 fl||78-94 fl|
|The average content of hemoglobin in red blood cells||26-32 pg||26-32 pg|
|Stab granulocytes (neutrophils)||1-6%||1-6%|
|Segmental granulocytes (neutrophils)||47-72%||47-72%|
Each of these indicators is important when deciphering a blood test, but the reliable result of the study is not only a comparison of the obtained data with the standards - all quantitative characteristics are considered together, in addition, the relationship between various indicators of blood properties is taken into account.
Red blood cells
Formed elements of blood. They contain hemoglobin, which is in each of the red blood cells in the same amount. Red blood cells are engaged in the transportation of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body.
- Vacaise disease (erythremia) - chronic leukemia.
- As a result of hypohydration with sweating, vomiting, burns.
- As a result of hypoxia in the body for chronic diseases of the lungs, heart, narrowing of the renal arteries and polycystic kidney disease. The increase in erythropoietin synthesis in response to hypoxia leads to an increase in the formation of red blood cells in the bone marrow.
- Leukemia, myeloma - blood tumors.
The level of erythrocytes in the blood becomes less and with diseases that are characterized by increased disintegration of red blood cells:
- hemolytic anemia;
- iron deficiency;
- lack of vitamin B12;
The average lifespan of a red blood cell is 120 days. These cells are formed in the bone marrow, and are destroyed in the liver.
Uniform elements of blood involved in the provision of hemostasis. Platelets are formed in the bone marrow from megakaryocytes.
An increase in the number of platelets (thrombocytosis) is observed with:
- reactive thrombocytosis;
- corticosteroid treatment;
- physical overvoltage;
- iron deficiency;
- malignant neoplasms;
- acute hemolysis;
- myeloproliferative disorders (erythremia, myelofibrosis);
- chronic inflammatory diseases (rheumatoid arthritis, tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis).
A decrease in the number of platelets (thrombocytopenia) is observed with:
- reduced platelet production;
- DIC syndrome;
- increased platelet destruction;
- hemolytic-uremic syndrome;
- autoimmune diseases.
The main function of this blood component is to participate in blood coagulation. Inside the platelets contains the main part of coagulation factors that are released into the blood if necessary (damage to the vessel wall). Due to this property, the damaged vessel is blocked by a forming thrombus and the bleeding stops.
White blood cells
White blood cells. Formed in red bone marrow. The function of leukocytes is to protect the body from foreign substances and microbes. In other words, it is immunity.
- infections, inflammation;
- condition after acute bleeding, hemolysis.
Decrease in leukocytes:
- bone marrow pathology;
- infections (influenza, rubella, measles, etc.);
- genetic immunity abnormalities;
- increased spleen function.
There are different types of leukocytes, so the change in the number of individual species, and not of all leukocytes in general, is of diagnostic importance.
Leaving into tissues, they turn into mast cells responsible for the release of histamine - a hypersensitivity reaction to food, drugs, etc.
- Elevation: hypersensitivity reactions, chickenpox, hypothyroidism, chronic sinusitis.
- Reduction: hyperthyroidism, pregnancy, ovulation, stress, acute infections.
Basophils participate in the formation of delayed-type immunological inflammatory reactions. Contain a large number of substances that cause inflammation of the tissues.
Allergic cells. Normally, they should be from 0 to 5%. In case of an increase in the index, it indicates the presence of allergic inflammation (allergic rhinitis). It is important that the number of eosinophils can be increased in the presence of worm infestations! This is especially common in children. This fact should be taken into account by pediatricians to make a correct diagnosis.
They are divided into several groups - adolescent, stab-core and segmented. Neutrophils provide antibacterial immunity, and their varieties are the same cells of different ages. Due to this, it is possible to determine the severity and severity of the inflammatory process or damage to the blood-forming system.
An increase in the number of neutrophils is observed in infections, mainly bacterial, injuries, myocardial infarction, and malignant tumors. In severe diseases, mainly stab neutrophils increase - so-called occurs. stab shift left. In severe conditions, purulent processes and sepsis, young forms can be detected in the blood - promyelocytes and myelocytes, which normally should not be. Also, with difficult processes in neutrophils, toxic granularity is detected.
MON - monocytes
This element is considered to be a variation of leukocytes in the macrophage form, i.e. their active phase, absorbing dead cells and bacteria. The norm for a healthy person is from 0.1 to 0.7 * 10 ^ 9 el / l.
The decrease in the level of MON is caused by heavy operations and intake of corticosteroids, the increase indicates the development of rheumatoid arthritis, syphilis, tuberculosis, mononucleosis and other diseases of an infectious nature.
GRAN - granulocytes
Granular leukocytes are activators of the immune system in the process of combating inflammation, infections and allergic reactions. The norm for a person is from 1.2 to 6.8 * 10 ^ 9 el / l.
The level of GRAN increases with inflammation, decreases with lupus erythematosus and aplastic anemia.
Reflects the relative content of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Used for the differential diagnosis of anemia: normochromic (normal amount of hemoglobin in the erythrocyte), hyperchromic (elevated), hypochromic (decreased).
- Reduction in CP occurs when: iron deficiency anemia; anemia caused by lead intoxication in diseases with impaired hemoglobin synthesis.
- Increased CP occurs when: vitamin B12 deficiency in the body; folic acid deficiency; cancer; polyposis of the stomach.
The rate of the color index (CP): 0.85-1.1.
An increase in hemoglobin concentration occurs in erythremia (a decrease in the number of red blood cells), erythrocytosis (an increase in the number of red blood cells), as well as when blood is thickened due to a large loss of body fluid. In addition, the hemoglobin index is increased with cardiovascular decompensation.
If the hemoglobin index is more or less than the limit of the norm, this indicates the presence of pathological conditions. Thus, a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood is observed with anemia of various etiologies and with blood loss. This condition is also called anemia.
Hematocrit is the percentage ratio of the volume of blood studied to the volume occupied by red blood cells in it. This indicator is calculated in percent.
Hematocrit decreases with:
- water retention in the body (chronic renal failure);
- excessive content of proteins in plasma (myeloma);
- drink plenty of fluids or inject a large amount of solutions intravenously.
An increase in hematocrit above normal indicates:
- polycythemia vera;
- burn disease;
- kidney disease (hydronephrosis, polycystic disease, neoplasm);
- fluid loss (excessive sweating, vomiting);
Normal hematocrit: Men - 40-48%, women - 36-42%.
The erythrocyte sedimentation rate shows how quickly the blood is divided into two layers - the upper (plasma) and lower (shaped elements). This indicator depends on the number of red blood cells, globulins and fibrinogen. That is, the more red cells a person has, the slower they settle. An increase in the number of globulins and fibrinogen, on the contrary, accelerates the erythrocyte sedimentation.
Causes of high ESR in total blood count:
- Acute and chronic inflammatory processes of infectious origin (pneumonia, rheumatism, syphilis, tuberculosis, sepsis).
- Heart disease (myocardial infarction - damage to the heart muscle, inflammation, synthesis of "acute phase" proteins, including fibrinogen.)
- Diseases of the liver (hepatitis), pancreas (destructive pancreatitis), intestines (Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis), kidney (nephrotic syndrome).
- Hematological diseases (anemia, lymphogranulomatosis, myeloma).
- Endocrine pathology (diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis).
- Injury of organs and tissues (surgery, injuries and bone fractures) - any damage increases the ability of red blood cells to aggregate.
- States accompanied by severe intoxication.
- Lead or arsenic poisoning.
- Malignant neoplasms.
ESR below the norm is typical for the following conditions of the body:
- Mechanical jaundice and, as a consequence, the release of large amounts of bile acids;
- High bilirubin (hyperbilirubinemia);
- Erythremia and reactive erythrocytosis;
- Sickle cell anemia;
- Chronic circulatory failure;
- Reduced fibrinogen level (hypofibrinogenemia).
ESR, as a non-specific indicator of the disease process, is often used to monitor its course.