Biochemical analysis of blood - a study that is conducted in the laboratory, and is used in medicine to identify information about the functional state of the organism as a whole, the organs separately. Its results help to accurately determine the malfunction of the body.
Correct interpretation of the indicators of biochemical blood analysis in adults allows for accurate diagnosis of the state of internal organs.
Biochemical analysis of blood includes the determination of a number of indicators that reliably reflect the state of such metabolic processes as mineral, carbohydrate, lipid, protein.
How to decipher the biochemical blood test in adults?
Deciphering the biochemical analysis of blood - this is a comparison of the results obtained with normal indicators. The analysis form contains a complete list of indicators determined by the biochemical laboratory and their reference values.
Biochemical analysis is prescribed for the diagnosis:
- Pathology gynecological system.
- Ailments of the circulatory system (leukemia).
- Renal, hepatic failure (hereditary pathologies).
- Disorders of the heart muscle (heart attack, stroke).
- Diseases in the musculoskeletal system (arthritis, arthrosis, osteoporosis).
- Thyroid disease (diabetes).
- Deviations in the functioning of the stomach, intestines, pancreas.
Sometimes it is enough to establish the final diagnosis on the basis of a deviation from the norm of one or several parameters, but more often for a complete diagnosis, other results of additional research methods and evaluation of the clinical picture of the disease are required.
Preparation for analysis
The accuracy of the blood test may well affect the preparation and its conduct. Therefore, it is worth noting the main points of preparation in order to receive normal results of the study without false deviations.
- To exclude from the diet heavy food (fried, fatty and spicy dishes) at least one day before blood sampling - it is best to follow a balanced diet for several days before the study.
- Reduce to a minimum the consumption of coffee, strong tea, psychostimulants - 12 hours before donating blood, it is absolutely impossible to take substances that affect the central nervous system (caffeine, alcohol).
- Provide comfortable conditions for the emotional state, avoid stress and physical exertion.
- On the day of blood sampling before the procedure can not be eaten.
According to the analysis, the doctor compares the results from the laboratory with the generally accepted ones, and determines the presence of a possible disease.
Biochemical analysis of blood: the norm
For convenience, the norms of indicators of biochemical analysis of blood in adults are shown in the table:
|Total protein||64-84 g / l.||64-84 g / l.|
|Hemoglobin||130-160 g / l||120-150 g / l.|
|Haptoglobin||150-2000 mg / l||150-2000 mg / l|
|Glucose||3.30-5.50 mmol / l.||3.30-5.50 mmol / l.|
|Urea||2.5-8.3 mmol / l.||2.5-8.3 mmol / l.|
|Creatinine||62-115 μmol / l||53-97 µmol / L.|
|Cholesterol||3.5-6.5 mmol / l.||3.5-6.5 mmol / l.|
|Bilirubin||5-20 µmol / l.||5-20 µmol / l.|
|ALAT (ALT)||up to 45 u / l||up to 31 u / l|
|AsAT (AST)||up to 45 u / l||up to 31 u / l|
|Lipase||0-190 u / l||0-190 u / l|
|Alpha amylase||28-100 u / l||28-100 u / l|
|Pancreatic amylase||0-50 u / l||0-50 u / l|
Each of the criteria listed in the table reflects the state of one or several human organs, and a combination of some of them allows in some cases to make an accurate diagnosis or direct the diagnostic process on the right track.
Below we will look at what each of these analyzes shows with an example of deciphering a biochemical blood test in adults.
Total protein - the total concentration of proteins that are in the blood. Proteins take part in all biochemical reactions of the body - they transport various substances, act as catalysts for reactions, participate in immune defense.
Normal indicators of protein in the blood - 64-84 g / l. If protein is higher than this, the body may be exposed to infection. In addition, the cause of increased protein can be arthritis, rheumatism, or the onset of cancer. With a low protein content in the blood, the likelihood of liver disease increases many times, as well as problems with the intestines, kidneys. The most difficult diagnosis for low protein is cancer.
See more in detail: why protein is increased in blood.
This protein is produced by the liver and is considered essential in the blood plasma. In general, experts distinguish albumin as a separate protein group, called protein fractions.
An increase in the concentration of albumin in the blood (hyperalbuminemia) may be associated with the following pathologies:
- dehydration or dehydration (loss of body fluids due to vomiting, diarrhea, excessive sweating);
- extensive burns.
A reduced albumin index is observed in smoking patients and in women during pregnancy, as well as breastfeeding. In other people, a decrease in albumin may indicate various liver pathologies (for example, cirrhosis, hepatitis, or oncology), and intestinal inflammations of an infectious nature (sepsis). In addition, in heart failure or cancer, burns or fever, various injuries or drug overdose, albumin in the blood will be below normal.
The most frequent indicator of carbohydrate metabolism is blood sugar. Its short-term increase occurs with emotional arousal, stress reactions, painful attacks, after eating. Norm - 3.5-5.5 mmol / l (test for glucose tolerance, test with sugar load).
- Sugar is increased - diabetes, endocrine disorders, pancreatitis, pancreatic tumor, brain hemorrhage, chronic liver and kidney damage, myocardial infarction, cystic fibrosis.
- Sugar lowered - damage to the liver and pancreas, hypothyroidism, cancer of the stomach or adrenal glands, poisoning with arsenic or certain drugs, alcohol intoxication.
The main product of the decay of the main component of nucleic acids - purine bases. Since it is not used further in metabolic processes, it is excreted by the kidneys in unchanged form. The plasma norm is 0.16-0.44 mmol / l.
Increasing the content of uric acid in the blood indicates:
- renal failure;
- leukemia, lymphomas;
- long fasting;
- alcohol abuse;
- overdose with salicylates and diuretics.
A decrease in the level of uric acid in the blood can be observed during treatment with piperazine, allopurinol, prebecid, ACTH, and sometimes with hepatitis and anemia.
See more: why uric acid in the blood is increased.
It is a consequence of the breakdown of proteins. In the blood of a person, the permissible amount of this substance varies with age. Often, the level of urea exceeds the level of patients who have pathologies in the work of the kidneys: doctors prescribe a similar blood test to diagnose and predict ailment.
A decrease in the level of urea in the blood can be triggered by the reasons that they have a physiological (pregnancy, fasting, excessive physical load), pathological nature (celiac disease, liver cirrhosis, heavy metal poisoning).
See more: why urea in the blood is increased.
This substance, like urea, is a product of protein metabolism and is also excreted by the kidneys. Creatinine is a product of metabolic processes that occur in skeletal muscles, and to a lesser extent in the brain. Accordingly, its level will depend on the condition of the kidneys and muscles.
Elevated creatinine is observed in renal failure, severe injuries with muscle damage, with enhanced thyroid function, after the use of certain anti-inflammatory and antibacterial agents. Moderately high creatinine is found in athletes.
See more in detail: why creatinine is increased in blood.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, AlAt)
This indicator along with AST is used in medical practice for laboratory diagnosis of liver damage. Alanine aminotransferase is synthesized intracellularly, and normally only a small part of this enzyme enters the blood. When the liver is damaged (with hepatitis, cirrhosis of the liver) as a result of cytolysis (cell destruction), this enzyme enters the bloodstream, which is detected by laboratory methods.
The level of this transaminase may also increase in myocardial infarction and other conditions. Increased ALT, exceeding the increase in AST, is characteristic of liver damage; if the AST index rises more than the ALT rises, then, as a rule, this indicates the problems of the myocardial (cardiac muscle) cells.
See for more details: why ALT is elevated.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST, AsAT)
Cellular enzyme involved in the metabolism of amino acids. AST is found in the tissues of the heart, liver, kidneys, nervous tissue, skeletal muscles, and other organs. The blood test AST can show an increase in AST in the blood if a disease is present in the body, such as:
- myocardial infarction;
- viral, toxic, alcoholic hepatitis;
- angina pectoris;
- acute pancreatitis;
- liver cancer;
- acute rheumatic heart disease;
- heavy physical exertion;
- heart failure.
AST is increased in skeletal muscle injuries, burns, heat stroke and due to cardiac surgery.
See more in detail: why AST is raised.
Many laboratories automatically include this enzyme in biochemical analysis. From a practical point of view, only an increase in the activity of this enzyme in the blood can be of interest.
This is evidence of either intrahepatic bile stasis in the small bile ducts, as is the case with mechanical and parenchymal jaundice, or progressive osteoporosis or bone destruction (myeloma, aging) ...
Component of fat metabolism, is involved in the construction of cell membranes, the synthesis of sex hormones and vitamin D. There are total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) and high density (HDL).
The degree of increase in cholesterol in the blood:
- 5.2-6.5 mmol / l - a slight degree of increase in the substance, the risk zone for atherosclerosis;
- 6.5-8.0 mmol / l - a moderate increase, which is adjusted by diet;
- over 8.0 mmol / l - a high level requiring medical intervention.
Elevated cholesterol in serum or plasma is an argument in favor of atherosclerosis, hypothyroidism (low thyroid activity), chronic hepatitis, decompensated diabetes, obstructive jaundice.
This figure decreases with:
- malignant liver tumors;
- cirrhosis of the liver;
- rheumatoid arthritis;
- hyperfunction of the thyroid and parathyroid glands;
- violation of the absorption of substances;
- chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Bilirubin is a yellow-red pigment that forms when hemoglobin breaks down in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. Its norm is in the blood of children and adults 3,4-20,5 µmol / l.
If the table with the results of the survey contains an elevated level of bilirubin, the doctor can diagnose one of the following diseases in adults:
- pancreatic tumors;
- inflammatory diseases of the biliary tract.
If the bilirubin is below normal, then the patient may have one of the presented diseases:
- acute viral hepatitis;
- bacterial damage of the liver (leptospirosis, brucellosis, etc.);
- toxic hepatitis;
- neoplasms in the liver and primary biliary cirrhosis;
- hemolytic anemia of various etiologies.
Bilirubin, which is formed as a result of the breakdown of hemoglobin (indirect), is released into the bloodstream, where it binds to albumin and is transferred to the liver. In liver cells, bilirubin binds to glucuronic acid. This bilirubin associated with glucuronic acid is called direct.
See more in detail: why bilirubin is increased in blood.
Splits carbohydrates from food, ensures their digestion. Contained in the salivary glands and pancreas. It happens alpha-amiliza (diastasis) and pancreatic amylase.
- norm of alpha-amylase: 28-100 units / l.
- norm of pancreatic amylase: 0-50 u / l.
A high content of amylase in a biochemical blood test indicates: peritonitis, pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus, pancreatic cyst, stone, cholecystitis, or renal failure.
Reduced alpha-amylase: thyrotoxicosis; myocardial infarction; complete necrosis of the pancreas; toxicosis of pregnant women.
Another important intracellular electrolyte. Its normal content in the body ranges from 3.5 to 5.5 mmol per liter.
- an excess of adrenal cortex hormones (including the intake of cortisone dosage forms);
- chronic starvation (not getting potassium from food);
- prolonged vomiting, diarrhea (loss with intestinal juice);
- impaired renal function;
- cystic fibrosis.
Increasing the potassium content:
- acute renal failure (impaired kidney excretion); ,
- adrenal insufficiency.
- cell damage (hemolysis - destruction of blood cells, severe starvation, convulsions, severe injuries).
A condition when potassium is elevated is called hyperkalemia, and when it is low, hypokalemia is called.
Sodium is not directly involved in metabolism. Its full full in extracellular fluid. Its main function is to maintain osmotic pressure and pH. Sodium excretion occurs with urine and is controlled by the hormone of the adrenal cortex - aldosterone.
- decrease in concentration due to an increase in the volume of fluid (diabetes mellitus, chronic cardiac
- insufficiency, liver cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, edema).
- loss of an element (diuretic abuse, renal pathology, adrenal insufficiency).
- increased function of the adrenal cortex;
- excessive salt intake;
- loss of extracellular fluid (profuse sweat, severe vomiting and diarrhea, increased urination with diabetes insipidus);
- violation of the central regulation of water-salt metabolism (pathology of the hypothalamus, coma).
An increase in the trace element is called hypernatremia, and a decrease is called hyponatremia.
Different laboratories can conduct a biochemical analysis of blood in accordance with excellent teaching aids, use other units for measuring concentrations of elements.
Therefore, the rates of indicators can vary significantly. When the laboratory technician gives you the results of the analysis, be sure to ensure that the form is written specifications. This is the only way you can understand whether there are changes in your analyzes or not.