Uric acid is one of the substances naturally produced by the body. It arises as a result of the breakdown of the purine molecules contained in many products, under the action of an enzyme called xanthine oxidase.
After use, the purines are degraded to uric acid and processed. Some of them remain in the blood, and the remainder is eliminated by the kidneys.
Deviations in the level of uric acid in the blood can be due to relatively harmless factors, and even daily fluctuations (in the evenings its concentration increases).
Therefore, it is necessary to find out the cause, if elevated uric acid is found in the blood - what it is: the result of intense exercise, a consequence of a diet, or a sign of serious organic pathology. What pathologies cause abnormal uric acid levels? Let's talk about this in more detail.
How to prepare for the analysis
To undergo a biochemical blood test, which determines the level of uric acid, the day before you must adhere to these rules:
- No juices, tea, coffee.
- Chewing gum is also not recommended.
- Do not consume alcohol the day before blood donation.
- Do not smoke an hour before the biochemical analysis.
- It is desirable that 12 hours have passed since the meal.
- Blood should be taken in the morning.
- Exclude psycho-emotional stress and stresses.
Decoding analysis and further appointments should be carried out only by the attending physician.
Norm uric acid in the blood
Normal content differs according to gender and age - it is less for young people than for older people, and more for men than women:
- children under 12 years old: 120-330;
- women under 60: 200-300;
- men under 60: 250-400;
- women from 60 years: 210-430;
- men from 60 years: 250-480;
- the norm in women from 90 years: 130-460;
- the norm in men from 90 years: 210-490.
The main functions of uric acid:
- It activates and enhances the action of norepinephrine and adrenaline - it stimulates the brain and nervous system in general;
- An antioxidant - protects the body from free radicals and prevents cancerous cell degeneration.
The level of uric acid, determined by biochemical analysis of blood, says about the state of health. Shifts in the content of this metabolic product in the blood, both upward and downward, depend on two processes: the formation of acid in the liver and the time it is excreted by the kidneys, which may change due to various pathologies.
Causes of elevated uric acid in the blood
Why is adult blood uric acid elevated, and what does it mean? Exceeding the upper limit is called hyperuricemia. According to medical statistics, it is more often observed in men than in women. Hyperuricemia is possible in the form of a non-permanent jump in physiological conditions:
- excess protein foods;
- physical exertion;
- prolonged fasting;
- alcohol abuse.
Other reasons for the increase in uric acid above normal are observed in the following pathological conditions:
- Arterial hypertension. Already at stage 2 of hypertension, an increase in uric acid is observed. Hyperuricemia causes kidney damage, contributing to the progression of the underlying disease. Against antihypertensive therapy, uric acid levels may return to normal without specific therapy. If there is no such dynamics, adherence to a special diet (see below) and an increase in physical activity are recommended, with further hyperuricemia therapy (see the list of high-pressure pills).
- Reduced excretion of uric acid by the kidneys in renal failure, polycystic kidney disease, lead poisoning with the development of nephropathy, acidosis and toxicosis of pregnant women.
- One of the reasons for the increase in uric acid in the blood, medicine calls malnutrition, namely, the consumption of unreasonable amounts of products that accumulate purine substances. These are smoked meats (fish and meat), canned food (especially sprats), beef and pork liver, kidneys, fried meat dishes, mushrooms and other goodies. A great love for these products leads to the fact that the purine bases necessary for the body are absorbed, and the final product, uric acid, turns out to be superfluous.
- Elevated cholesterol and lipoproteins. Quite often, the development of overt clinical signs of gout and hypertension is preceded by a long asymptomatic increase in various components of the lipodigram.
- Another cause of acid is gout. In this case, we can already say that an excess amount of uric acid causes the disease itself, that is, there is a causal relationship.
- Medication: diuretics, drugs for tuberculosis, aspirin, cancer chemotherapy.
- Diseases of the endocrine organs, including: hypoparathyroidism, acromegaly, diabetes.
If the uric acid in the blood is increased in a woman or a man, you should donate blood for analysis several times to see the performance over time.
As a rule, in itself, the initial increase in the level of uric acid in the blood occurs without noticeable symptoms, and it turns out by chance, according to the results of tests performed during a preventive examination or as a result of treating another disease.
When uric acid levels rise high enough, these symptoms may appear:
- acute pains in the joints of the limbs due to crystallization of salts in them;
- the appearance on the skin of suspicious spots, small ulcers;
- reduction of urine output;
- redness of the elbows and knees;
- sudden pressure jumps, heart rhythm disturbances.
Treatment of hyperuricemia is prescribed only if a disease is detected with this symptom. Other causes are eliminated by the correction of nutrition and lifestyle. A special diet is needed in any case.
One of the most common complications due to the high content of uric acid in the blood is gout. It is an inflammation of the joints, or arthritis, which causes significant pain in someone who suffers and can make him disabled.
Hyperuricemia increases the risk of gout, since uric acid accumulates in the blood and causes microscopic crystals to form in the joint. These crystals can penetrate the synovial joint and cause pain when friction occurs in the joint during movement.Gout on foot
How to treat high blood urea
In case of an increase in the level of urea in the blood, the complex treatment scheme consists of the following measures:
- Receiving drugs with diuretic effect and means to reduce the production of uric acid (Allopurinol, Colchicine).
- Correction of a diet with a predominance of lean, vegetable dishes, the exclusion of alcoholic beverages.
- Increase the amount of fluid consumed, including - juices, compotes.
The key to recovery from hyperuricemia is a special diet, which should not contain products with a high concentration of purines.
In the treatment of hyperuricemia also used folk remedies. For this purpose, taken inside decoctions and infusions of cranberries, birch leaves, nettle. For foot baths apply infusions of calendula, chamomile and sage.
See also: Top 10 diuretic drugs.
What should be the diet?
Food with elevated uric acid should be balanced and dietary. At the same time it is necessary to minimize the amount of salt in the diet.
Diet implies a categorical ban:
- on alcoholic beverages;
- rich broths;
- fatty meat and fish dishes, offal, smoked meat, sausages, etc .;
- spicy seasonings, snacks, sauces, pickles and other products containing large amounts of sodium salts.
In addition, it is strongly recommended to reduce the following foods in the diet:
- legumes, mushrooms;
- chocolate, coffee, cocoa;
- tomatoes, spinach.
It is very useful to eat:
- green apples of different varieties;
- garlic and onions;
- lemons and other citrus fruits;
- white and black bread;
- dill greens;
- eggs, but not more than 3 pcs. in Week;
- green or herbal tea;
- pumpkin and carrots;
- cucumbers and white cabbage;
- cottage cheese, kefir, sour cream;
- peeled potatoes cooked in any way;
- low-fat boiled meat and fish;
- boiled and then baked rabbit, chicken and turkey meat;
- various vegetable oils, especially olive.
The amount of fluid consumed per day should be 2-2.5 liters per day, most of which should be clean water
Adhere to the basic principles of diet with elevated uric acid will have throughout life, as the disease can recur. A therapist or a urologist can create a menu and pick up the products, but before that the patient must pass a set of tests that will help create a proper and effective diet for therapeutic purposes.
If the diet does not help reduce the symptoms and reduce the level of uric acid, then medications are prescribed. Allopurinol, sulfinpirazon, benzobromarone, colchicine - means to block the synthesis in the liver.