The term "total protein" refers to the total concentration of albumin and globulin in the serum.
In the body, the total protein performs a number of functions: participation in blood clotting, participation in immune processes, the transport function of the blood, and others.
This type of protein reflects the well-being of homeostasis, because thanks to proteins the blood has a certain viscosity, fluidity and, accordingly, a certain amount of blood is formed in the vascular bed.
The work of both the cardiovascular system of the organism and the metabolic functions of the organism, which directly affect the work of the organism as a whole, is directly connected with these important characteristics of the blood.
The role of protein in the body
The proteins that make up the blood are responsible for various functions that ensure the viability of the body. The most important of which are the following:
- maintaining fluidity and viscosity of blood;
- retention in suspension of all blood components;
- determination of blood volume in the vessels of blood vessels;
- regulation of blood pH;
- transporting lipids, pigments, minerals, hormones and other important
- biological compounds for organs and tissues;
- blood coagulation.
The main indications for biochemical analysis of blood for protein:
- infectious diseases, both acute and chronic;
- kidney disease;
- oncological diseases;
- collagenosis and systemic diseases;
- screening tests;
- eating disorders.
When the protein in the blood is higher than normal, this indicates that the blood becomes thicker and the body is dehydrated. Low blood protein indicates a disease that is associated with malnutrition and decreased appetite.
Blood protein norm
The norm of the protein content in the blood of men and women is about the same, there is only dependence on age
- from 43 to 68 g / liter - for newborns;
- from 48 to 72 - for children up to 1 year;
- from 51 to 75 - for children from 1 to 4 years;
- from 52 to 78 - for children from 5 to 7 years;
- from 58 to 78 - for children from 8 to 15;
- 65 to 80 for adults;
- from 62 to 81 - for people from 60 years.
The determination of its concentration is necessary in the diagnosis of oncological diseases, diseases of the kidneys and liver, with severe burns, nutritional disorders. Elevated protein indicates violations in the body. According to one indicator, it is impossible to establish the cause and prescribe treatment; therefore, additional research is needed.
The reasons for the increase in total protein in the blood
Blood protein found above normal, what does this mean? A significant increase in the concentration of total protein in the blood is called hyperproproteninemia. This state can not be observed in normal physiological processes, and therefore, develops only in the presence of pathology, in which the formation of pathological proteins.
It is also worth noting that the increase can be absolute, when the amount of plasma proteins increases without changing the volume of circulating blood, and relative, which is associated with thickening of the blood.
Most often, the following conditions lead to absolute hyperproteinaemia:
- Malignant tumors with their own, perverted metabolism and intensively producing proteins.
- Severe acute infectious diseases, accompanied by the formation of extensive purulent foci and sepsis.
- Autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and lupus erythematosus, in which the body's immune system shows aggression against its own healthy cells and tissues.
- Chronic inflammatory diseases in which there is a permanent destruction of body tissues.
Relative hyperproteinemia causes a decrease in the concentration of water in the bloodstream, which occurs due to dehydration of the body in certain diseases:
- Acute intestinal infections accompanied by frequent stools: dysentery, cholera, etc., with these diseases, an increased protein in the blood is always recorded.
- Intestinal obstruction, causing an obstacle to the absorption of water from the digestive tract.
- Poisoning, which are accompanied by repeated vomiting and diarrhea, which leads to pronounced dehydration.
- Acute bleeding can also trigger an increase in protein due to significant fluid loss.
- Long-term treatment with corticosteroids, overdose of certain drugs, most often vitamin A.
The above factors affecting the level of protein indicate that in each individual case the interpretation of the obtained laboratory data presents significant difficulties, and therefore the physician should largely focus on the symptoms of the disease and data from other instrumental and laboratory studies.
Increased reactive protein in the blood, what does this mean?
C-reactive protein (CRP, CRP) is called the plasma protein, it belongs to the group of proteins of the acute phase, the increase in the concentration of which indicates the inflammatory process in the body. This protein has been used in clinical diagnostics as an indicator of inflammation (more sensitive than ESR).
High levels of CRP in the blood can mean such reasons:
- The exacerbation of chronic infectious-inflammatory or allergic diseases, as well as the presence of a chronic sluggish inflammatory process, for example, in the walls of blood vessels.
- Acute infections: bacterial, fungal, viral. In some bacterial diseases, such as meningitis, tuberculosis, sepsis of newborns, the level can be increased to 100 mg per liter and higher. In viral lesions, this indicator increases slightly.
- Tissue damage, for example, as a result of necrosis (myocardial infarction), trauma, burns, frostbite, surgery.
- The presence of endocrine pathology, such as diabetes, obesity; high blood levels of female sex hormones.
- Crayfish. If it was found that the reason for the increase in C-reactive protein does not hide in infections, then it is necessary to undergo an examination for malignant neoplasms.
- Disruption of lipid metabolism and the propensity to develop atherosclerosis.
Reactive protein is called the golden marker of inflammatory processes, one of the main parameters in the diagnosis. A blood test for CRP in combination with other indicators makes it possible to assess the likelihood of developing cardiovascular diseases, forecast their course, determine the risk of developing complications, and develop treatment and prevention tactics.