Hematuria is a common pathology characterized by the appearance of blood in the urine of a sick woman in a volume exceeding the physiological norm. It is believed that this phenomenon is one of the most typical symptoms of diseases of the kidneys and organs of the genitourinary system.
Modern medicine is aware of more than 100 pathologies, to one degree or another contributing to the development of hematuria. At the same time, some of them are chronic diseases, and some - emergency conditions requiring emergency medical care.
In this article we will try to make out the most frequent reasons for the fault of which women have blood in their urine, what it can be, and how to treat this problem, read below.
By the amount of blood content in the urine emit:
- Microhematuria - a small number of red blood cells is determined only in laboratory tests. This indicator is important in the treatment of kidney diseases - glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis and renal failure.
- Gross hematuria - the presence of red blood cells can be seen not armed with the eye - it is the gross hematuria that the patient can notice himself, already 1 ml of blood per 200 ml of urine is enough to change color to pink or red.
Urine of a healthy person is a light yellow or almost colorless liquid and any changes in color, impurities and persistent unpleasant odor are signs of internal diseases. If the appearance of blood in the urine is accompanied by pain, then the cause of the pathology is most often diseases of the urinary organs and urination - glomerulonephritis, kidney stones, urethritis, and so on.
Painless urination and red discharge can be a sign of cancer or injury to the internal organs.
Causes of blood in the urine
Possible diseases as a result of which blood appears when urinating in women of young or old age:
- endometriosis of the urinary system;
- bladder tumors and polyps;
- urinary infections;
- idiopathic hematuria in pregnant women;
- wound or severe kidney injury;
- urolithiasis (the formation of kidney stones);
- taking anticoagulants;
- traumatic injuries of the urethra after catheterization or cystoscopy.
Blood in the urine of a woman in the prevailing majority of cases indicates pyelonephritis or cystitis - common pathologies of the urinary system.
Causes of blood in the urine in women can also occur in endometriosis of the bladder, when the cells lining the inner layer of the uterus germinate in the walls of the bladder. During menstruation, these cells begin to bleed, and the blood directly enters the urine.
For women, the so-called benign hematuria, often observed during pregnancy, is inherent. There is no explanation for this phenomenon yet - it is assumed that an increase in the uterus leads to compression of the urogenital tract organs and their microtraumatization.
During body movements, stones press against the walls of the ureter and a lot of blood enters the urine. Urine has a uniform, not bright, but a dark red shade. Blood enters the urine not at the very beginning of urination, as if the urethra is damaged, but gradually. This symptom is a direct indication of the presence of kidney stones, and possibly glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, tumors, polycystic kidney disease, or kidney injury.
Depending on the structure and density of the stones, they are crushed or removed surgically. Preparation for these procedures includes antibiotic therapy and anti-inflammatory drugs.
This is an inflammation of the bladder, which can take an acute or chronic form. This causes frequent, sometimes false urge to urinate, blood impurities appear in the urine, and patients also complain of persistent or recurring pain in the lower abdomen.
Cystitis may develop due to local hypothermia, in the presence of inflammatory processes in the vagina, due to non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, with venereal, gynecological or urological pathologies.
Antibiotics (norfloxacin, cefuroxime, ceftriaxone) are prescribed for treatment, anti-inflammatory therapy (paracetamol, nimesil) is performed. Also needed are measures aimed at improving the flow of urine, for which antispasmodics (no-spa, drotaverine) and diuretics (furosemide) are used.
This is another very common cause of blood in the urine. This disease develops due to inflammation of the walls of the urethra. In this case, patients complain of sharp pains during urination, scanty mucopurulent discharges appear from the urethra, and blood impurities are detected in all urine samples.
The principles of treatment are the same as for cystitis. Additionally, antiseptic solutions are used with which the urethra is flushed.
What to do?
Most women who experience blood in their urine will experience great anxiety. And rightly so. In no case should not try to diagnose and treat yourself. It is necessary as soon as possible to sign up for a consultation with a urologist.
Usually prescribed in such cases, ultrasound examination of the urinary organs, complete blood count and urine, blood sugar level, creatinine level in the blood. Since for diagnosis it is important to understand from which part of the urinary system blood penetrates, the physician will interview the patient in detail and examine him.
After establishing the cause of urination disorders, a highly qualified doctor will select an individual complex treatment:
- When an urinary bladder is infected, antibiotic therapy is prescribed;
- When infection of the urethra is prescribed antibiotic therapy;
- At a neoplasm in the kidney, an operation is prescribed;
- For autoimmune disease or infection, drug therapy is used;
- For urolithiasis, sonication or surgery is used;
- For bladder ailments, such as a neoplasm or a polyp, surgical treatment is used;
- For injuries, it is drug therapy and, often, surgery.
Preventing the appearance of disorders associated with the process of urination:
- Systematic examinations by specialists;
- Immediate treatment of genital infections;
- Protected intercourse;
- Training the muscles of the pelvic floor;
- Maintain a healthy weight;
- Proper daily routine and diet.
The appearance of suspicious symptoms, in particular the change in color of urine, the appearance of blood in it should not be ignored. It is better to be examined to clarify the cause of urine discoloration. If, after conducting a general analysis of urine, no pathological changes have been identified, the unusual color of urine is most likely a consequence of taking medications or products that contain food coloring.