Rubella in adults: photo, symptoms and treatment, prevention

Rubella refers to the so-called "childhood" diseases, which mostly a small population of the planet suffer. Having been ill in childhood, a person acquires lifelong resistance to this disease.

But those who grew up without such a life experience and were not vaccinated on time, risk to pick up rubella already adults. And as with other "childhood" diseases, this infection will be much more difficult than that of a child.

Today we will talk about rubella in adults, see detailed photos, as well as the symptoms and modern methods of treatment of this disease.

Causes

Rubella viruses are Togaviruses. They have a spherical shape and contain RNA and neurominidase. In the external environment, they are unstable and quickly die during drying, exposure to ultraviolet radiation or disinfectants.

Infection occurs only from a sick person by airborne droplets. In the past, rubella has manifested itself in the form of epidemic outbreaks, but now thanks to active immunization it is much less common.

The maximum incidence is recorded in the autumn or spring, when immunity decreases.

Rubella incubation period

The incubation period lasts from 16 to 20 days. Already at this time, a healthy-looking person can become a source of illness. During the incubation period, the virus penetrates and covers the mucous membranes - that is, it can get into the environment.

The patient becomes especially dangerous to others a week before the appearance of rash and contagious even 5 - 7 days after the end of the rash. The most dangerous is the period when there is a rash on the body.

Symptoms of rubella in adults

If rubella affects the body of a child, then the disease proceeds calmly, and with virtually no bright symptoms and intoxication of the whole body. A completely different picture of symptoms occurs if rubella occurs in adults. Here, pronounced signs and complications can occur in much larger numbers.

The distinctive symptoms of the disease in adults include:

  • the appearance of lesions that merge with each other, forming large areas and localized on the buttocks and back;
  • the rapid rise in temperature, which is quite difficult to bring down;
  • an increase in the inguinal or axillary lymph nodes on the second day after the onset of the disease;
  • pain in the muscles and joints;
  • symptoms of acute respiratory infections: severe runny nose, pain and sore throat, moderate or severe cough;
  • bouts of headaches resembling a migraine, which is not easy to get rid of painkillers;
  • photophobia and tearing;
  • acute conjunctivitis with a large amount of purulent discharge;
  • pain in the testes of men, requiring strict bed rest.

Sometimes the incubation period of the disease lasts up to 20-24 days, which allows viruses to actively proliferate.

Rubella in adults: photo

How does the rubella rash in adults look like, we offer to view detailed photos in the initial and subsequent stages.

Complications

The most dangerous consequence is the inflammation of the meninges - encephalitis. Another unpleasant complication of rubella is joint disease (arthritis). If a person has poor immunity, the rubella virus contributes to the development of otitis (ear inflammation) and pneumonia (pneumonia). The cause of these complications is a bacterial infection with which the body can not cope.

During pregnancy

Especially dangerous is rubella for pregnant women. Its danger lies in the defeat of the fetus. By infecting a fetus in the womb, this viral disease can cause a baby to develop a number of malformations.

The organs of hearing and sight as well as the heart are most often affected. Bones, internal organs and the brain are affected less often. Infection with rubella can even lead to the death of a child in the womb.

It is a pity to talk about it, but a pregnant woman who contracted rubella in the early stages does not receive treatment, but strongly recommends an abortion. Late infection often leads to congenital rubella in children.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis is based on the identification of clinical manifestations. Additionally prescribed:

  • blood test for the presence of antibodies to the virus. Use the method of ELISA, PCR;
  • seeding from the nasopharynx allows you to isolate the pathogen DNA.

Analyzes are needed to differentiate the disease with:

  • allergies to medications;
  • measles;
  • syphilis;
  • scarlet fever;
  • enterovirus infections.

I would also like to note that the symptoms of the disease are very similar to the common cold, therefore, it is not always possible to make a diagnosis yourself when the first symptoms occur.

Treatment of rubella in adults

Special preparations for rubella does not exist. All treatment of rubella in adults is to eliminate the existing symptoms. When the disease proceeds without serious complications, therapy can be carried out at home.

An adult needs isolation, complete rest and bed rest. Recommend to drink as much fluid as possible. Especially useful will be fortified drinks from lingonberry, rosehip, lemon and cranberry.

In particular, the patient may be prescribed:

  • detoxification;
  • antihistamines;
  • sedatives;
  • dehydration;
  • antipyretic drugs;
  • multivitamins.

In addition, doctors prescribe an antiallergic diet for patients. With a competent, adequate and responsible approach to the treatment of the disease ends with the recovery of the patient and the formation of his strong immunity to re-infection.

It is important to understand that self-treatment for rubella in the vast majority of cases not only does not bring the expected results, but also entails the development of a number of complications of the disease. That is why any actions aimed at combating this pathology should be obligatory coordinated with experienced doctors.

Prevention

If you have not had rubella in childhood, the best prevention is vaccination, you can get a rubella vaccine at any clinic.

Remember that more than others, a weakened organism is susceptible to infectious diseases, so as soon as you notice signs of reduced immunity - take action, it is also useful to do morning hygiene exercises and sports.

If you are not vaccinated, then try to avoid contact with the sick, you can often get from the child, especially in kindergarten.

Watch the video: Measles - Akron Children's Hospital video (November 2019).

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