Type 1 diabetes

Type 1 diabetes mellitus refers to a classic autoimmune organ-specific disease, which results in the destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells with the development of absolute insulin deficiency.

People who suffer from this disease need insulin therapy for type 1 diabetes, which means they need daily insulin injections.

Also very important for treatment are dieting, regular exercise and constant monitoring of blood glucose.

What it is?

Why does this disease occur, and what is it? Type 1 diabetes mellitus is an autoimmune disease of the endocrine system, the main diagnostic feature of which is:

  1. Chronic hyperglycemia - elevated blood sugar levels.
  2. Polyuria, as a consequence of this - thirst; weight loss; excessive or decreased appetite; severe general fatigue of the body; stomach ache.

The most common cases of young people (children, adolescents, adults under 30) may be congenital.

Diabetes develops when it occurs:

  1. Insufficient insulin production by pancreatic endocrine cells.
  2. Disruption of the interaction of insulin with the cells of the body tissues (insulin resistance) as a result of a change in the structure or reduction in the number of specific receptors for insulin, a change in the structure of insulin itself, or a violation of the intracellular mechanisms of signal transmission from receptors to cell organelles.

Insulin is produced in the pancreas - the organ located behind the stomach. The pancreas consists of clusters of endocrine cells called islets. Beta cells in the islets produce insulin and release it into the blood.

If beta cells do not produce enough insulin or the body does not respond to insulin, which is present in the body, glucose begins to accumulate in the body, rather than being absorbed by the cells, which leads to prediabetes or diabetes.


Despite the fact that diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases on the planet, in medical science there is still no clear information about the causes of the development of this disease.

Often, in order for diabetes to develop, the following prerequisites are necessary.

  1. Genetic Predisposition
  2. The process of decay of β-cells that make up the pancreas.
  3. This can occur both under external adverse effects and under autoimmune.
  4. The presence of constant psycho-emotional stress.

The term "diabetes" was first introduced by the Roman doctor Aretius, who lived in the second century AD. He described the disease as follows: "Diabetes is a terrible suffering, not very common among men, dissolving flesh and limbs into urine.

Patients, without ceasing, emit water in a continuous stream, as through open water pipes. Life is short, unpleasant and painful, thirst is insatiable, fluid intake is excessive and not commensurate with the huge amount of urine due to even greater diabetes. Nothing can keep them from taking fluid and excreting urine. If for a short time they refuse to take fluids, their mouth dries up, the skin and mucous membranes become dry. Patients have nausea, are agitated, and die within a short time. ”

What will happen if not treated?

Diabetes is terrible for its destructive effect on human blood vessels, both small and large. Doctors for those patients who do not treat diabetes mellitus type 1, give a disappointing prognosis: the development of all heart diseases, kidney and eye damage, gangrene of the extremities.

Therefore, all physicians advocate only for the fact that at the first symptoms you need to contact a medical institution and conduct tests for sugar.


The consequences of the first type are dangerous. Among the pathological conditions are the following:

  1. Angiopathy - damage to the blood vessels in the background of the energy deficiency of the capillaries.
  2. Nephropathy - damage to the renal glomeruli on the background of circulatory disorders.
  3. Retinopathy - damage to the eye retina.
  4. Neuropathy - damage to the membranes of nerve fibers
  5. Diabetic foot - characterized by multiple lesions of the limbs with cell death and the occurrence of trophic ulcers.

Patients with type 1 diabetes cannot live without insulin replacement therapy. With inadequate insulin therapy, against which the criteria for compensation of diabetes are not achieved and the patient is in a state of chronic hyperglycemia, late complications begin to develop rapidly and progress.


Hereditary disease type 1 diabetes can be detected by the following symptoms:

  • constant thirst and, consequently, frequent urination, leading to dehydration;
  • rapid weight loss;
  • constant feeling of hunger;
  • general weakness, rapid deterioration of health;
  • The onset of type 1 diabetes is always acute.

If you discover any symptoms of diabetes, you must immediately undergo a medical examination. If such a diagnosis takes place, the patient requires regular medical supervision and constant monitoring of blood glucose levels.


The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in the vast majority of cases is based on the identification of significant fasting hyperglycemia and during the day (postprandially) in patients with severe clinical manifestations of absolute insulin deficiency.

Results that show that a person has diabetes:

  1. Fasting plasma glucose is 7.0 mmol / L or higher.
  2. When conducting a two-hour test for glucose tolerance was the result of 11.1 mmol / l and above.
  3. Blood sugar in a random measurement was 11.1 mmol / l or higher, and there are symptoms of diabetes.
  4. Glycated HbA1C hemoglobin - 6.5% or higher.

If you have a home blood glucose meter, simply measure your sugar, without having to go to the lab. If the result is higher than 11.0 mmol / l - this is probably diabetes.

Treatment methods for type 1 diabetes

Immediately it must be said that first-degree diabetes cannot be cured. No drugs are able to revive the cells that die in the body.

The objectives of the treatment of type 1 diabetes:

  1. Keep blood sugar as close to normal as possible.
  2. Monitor blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors. In particular, to have normal results of blood tests for "bad" and "good" cholesterol, C-reactive protein, homocysteine, fibrinogen.
  3. If the complications of diabetes do occur, then detect it as soon as possible.
  4. The closer sugar in a diabetic is to normal, the lower the risk of complications in the cardiovascular system, kidneys, eyesight, and legs.

The main focus in the treatment of type 1 diabetes is the constant monitoring of blood sugar, insulin injections, diet and regular exercise. The goal is to keep blood glucose within normal limits. Tighter control of blood sugar levels can reduce the risk of diabetes-related heart attack and stroke by more than 50 percent.

Insulin therapy

The only possible option to help a patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus is to prescribe insulin therapy.

And the sooner treatment is prescribed, the better the general condition of the body will be, since the initial stage of diabetes mellitus grade 1 is characterized by insufficient insulin production by the pancreas, and later it stops producing it at all. And there is a need to introduce it from the outside.

Dosages of drugs are selected individually, while trying to imitate the insulin fluctuations of a healthy person (maintaining the background level of secretion (not associated with the intake of writing) and postprandial - after a meal). To do this, apply insulin ultrashort, short, medium duration of action and long-acting in various combinations.

Usually extended insulin is administered 1-2 times a day (morning / evening, morning or evening). Short insulin is injected before each meal - 3-4 times a day and as needed.


To control type 1 diabetes well, you need to learn a lot of different things. First of all, find out which foods boost your sugar and which don't. The diabetic diet can be used by all people who follow a healthy lifestyle and want to preserve youth and a strong body for many years.

First of all it is:

  1. Exclusion of simple (refined) carbohydrates (sugar, honey, confectionery, jam, sugary drinks, etc.); consume mostly complex carbohydrates (bread, cereals, potatoes, fruits, etc.).
  2. Compliance with regular meals (5-6 times a day in small portions);
    Limiting animal fats (lard, fatty meat, etc.).

Sufficient inclusion in the diet of vegetables, fruits and berries is useful because they contain vitamins and trace elements, are rich in dietary fiber and provide a normal metabolism in the body. But it should be borne in mind that the composition of some fruits and berries (prunes, strawberries, etc.) includes a lot of carbohydrates, so they can be consumed only with regard to the daily amount of carbohydrates in the diet.

For glucose control, an indicator such as a bread unit is used. She introduced to control the sugar content in food. One bread unit is equal to 12 grams of carbohydrates. For the disposal of 1 bread unit requires an average of 1.4 units of insulin. Thus, it is possible to calculate the average patient's need for sugars.

Diet number 9 in diabetes involves the consumption of fat (25%), carbohydrates (55%) and protein. A stronger sugar restriction is required in patients with renal insufficiency.

Physical exercise

In addition to diet therapy, insulin therapy and careful self-control, patients should maintain their physical form by applying those physical activities that are determined by the attending physician. Such cumulative methods will help lose weight, prevent the risk of cardiovascular diseases, chronically high blood pressure.

  1. When practicing, the sensitivity of the tissues of the body to insulin and the rate of its absorption increase.
  2. Consumption of glucose increases without additional portions of insulin.
  3. With regular workouts, normoglycemia stabilizes much faster.

Exercise greatly affects carbohydrate metabolism, so it is important to remember that during exercise the body actively uses glycogen stores, so hypoglycemia may occur after exercise.

Watch the video: Type 1 Diabetes. Nucleus Health (December 2019).


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