Cholecystitis - symptoms and treatment, diet

Cholecystitis along with pancreatitis is one of the most common diseases of the abdominal organs. Cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, while pancreatitis is a disease of the pancreas. These 2 illnesses often occur simultaneously.

About 15% of adults now suffer from cholecystitis, whose symptoms bother them in everyday life. This is due to a sedentary lifestyle, the nature of nutrition: excessive consumption of food rich in animal fats, growth of endocrine disorders. Therefore, how to treat cholecystitis worries many people.

The most common cholecystitis in women, they are faced with the symptoms of this disease 4 times more often than men. In most cases, this is the result of taking contraceptives or pregnancy.

And so, what is cholecystitis is inflammation of the gallbladder, an organ intended for the deposit of bile, which along with other digestive enzymes (gastric juice, enzymes of the small intestine and pancreas) is actively involved in the process of processing and digesting food.

Surgeons (with an acute form) and therapists (with chronic) often encounter this disease. In most cases, cholecystitis develops in the presence of stones in the gall bladder, and almost 95% of cases are diagnosed simultaneously with cholelithiasis. Depending on the form of the disease (acute, chronic cholecystitis), the symptoms of the disease and methods of treatment will vary.

Causes of cholecystitis

What it is? Most often, cholecystitis develops with the penetration and development of microbes (E. coli, streptococci, staphylococci, enterococci) in the gall bladder and this justifies the use of antibiotics in the development of acute or exacerbation of the chronic form.

Non-infectious causes of cholecystitis include:

  • biliary dyskinesia;
  • nature of food (use in large quantities of sweet, fatty, smoked, fried foods, fast food).
  • stones in the gallbladder and ducts;
  • diabetes, obesity;
  • sedentary lifestyle;
  • hormonal disorders in the body;
  • pregnancy;
  • reflux esophagitis;
  • heredity and congenital pathology of the gallbladder.

Very often, the development of cholecystitis occurs as a consequence of the disturbed outflow of bile. This can occur in a person who suffers from gallstone disease. Pregnancy is a provoking factor in the stagnation of bile in the gallbladder in women, since the enlarged uterus squeezes the gallbladder.

The trigger for the manifestation of the disease is always a violation in the diet of the patient with cholecystitis. In such cases, symptoms of the disease are detected in approximately 99 percent of patients.

Symptoms of cholecystitis

Acute cholecystitis, the symptoms of which often develop in the presence of stones in the gallbladder and are a complication of cholelithiasis.

Symptoms of acute cholecystitis develop rapidly, they are often referred to as "liver colic", since pain is localized precisely in the area of ​​the liver.

The main signs of the acute stage of the disease are:

  1. Incessant pain in the right hypochondrium, which can be given to the right side of the chest, neck, and right arm. Often, before the onset of pain, biliary colic occurs;
  2. Nausea and vomiting, after which relief does not come;
  3. Feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
  4. Increased body temperature;
  5. With complications - jaundice of the skin and sclera.

Often pain accompanied by nausea and vomiting bile. Usually there is an increase in temperature (up to 38 ° C and even up to 40 ° C), chills. The general condition is significantly deteriorating.

A provocative factor, giving points to the development of an acute attack of cholecystitis, is a strong stress, overeating with spicy, fatty foods, alcohol abuse. If you have not figured out how to treat cholecystitis in time, then it will become chronic and will bother you for a long time.

Symptoms of chronic cholecystitis

Chronic cholecystitis occurs mainly for a long time, sometimes it can last for many years. Aggravations and the onset of its symptoms are facilitated by precipitating factors - unhealthy diet, alcohol, stress, etc.

There are chronic stoneless (non-calculous) and chronic calculous cholecystitis. Their clinical difference from each other is due practically only to the fact that in case of calculous cholecystitis, a mechanical factor (stone migration) periodically joins, which gives a brighter picture of the disease.

The symptoms of the disease in a chronic form during an exacerbation are no different from the symptoms of cholecystitis in an acute form, except that the attack of biliary colic occurs not once, but from time to time with gross errors in nutrition.

Signs that an adult periodically experiences with the chronic form of this disease:

  • pain of dull character in the right hypochondrium;
  • vomiting, nausea;
  • bloating;
  • feeling of bitterness in the mouth;
  • diarrhea after eating (caused by violations of the digestion of fatty foods).

In women, signs of cholecystitis occurring in a chronic form are aggravated by sharp fluctuations in the hormonal background of the body, a few days before the onset of menstruation, during pregnancy.

Diagnostics

Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis is based on the collected history.

The doctor performs palpation of the abdominal cavity, and also finds out whether there is symptomatology of hepatic colic. With the help of ultrasound, an increase in the gallbladder and the presence of stones in its ducts are detected. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is prescribed for extended bile duct examination.

The blood test shows an increased white blood cell count, a high ESR, bilirubinemia, and dysproteinaemia. Biochemical analysis of urine shows increased activity of aminotransferases and amylase.

Cholecystitis treatment

Patients with acute cholecystitis, regardless of their condition, must be hospitalized in the surgical department of a hospital.

The treatment regimen for cholecystitis includes:

  • bed rest;
  • hunger;
  • detoxification therapy (intravenous administration of detoxification blood substitutes and saline solutions);
  • painkillers, antibiotics, antispasmodics, drugs that suppress the secretion of the stomach.

The patient needs bed rest. To relieve pain prescribed antispasmodics and analgesics. In case of severe pain syndrome, novocaine blockades are performed or electrophoresis of novocaine is prescribed. Detoxification is performed by intravenous administration of solutions of 5% glucose, solution, hemodez, with a total amount of 2-3 liters per day.

Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed. All patients with acute cholecystitis, without exception, are shown a strict diet - in the first 2 days you can drink only tea, then you are allowed to switch to a diet table 5A. At the acute stage, the treatment of cholecystitis is primarily aimed at relieving severe pain, reducing inflammation, and also eliminating the manifestations of general intoxication.

In severe cases, surgical treatment is indicated. The indication for organ removal (cholecystectomy) is an extensive inflammatory process, and the threat of complications. The operation can be performed by open or laparoscopic method to choose the patient.

How to treat cholecystitis folk remedies

In the treatment of chronic cholecystitis at home, you can use medicinal plants, but only as an addition to the main treatment. And so, here are some folk remedies, they should be used only after consulting a doctor.

  1. Take 2 teaspoons of crushed sage leaf medicinal, brew 2 cups of boiling water. Insist 30 minutes, strain. Take 1 tablespoon every 2 hours for inflammation of the gallbladder, liver.
  2. Flowers of immortelle-30 grams, yarrow-20 grams, wormwood-20 grams, fruits of fennel or dill-20 grams, mint-20 grams. All mix and chop thoroughly. Two teaspoons of the collection pour water (cold) and infuse for 8-12 hours. Reception: Take 1/3 cup three times a day before meals.
  3. Take 4 parts of dandelion roots, 4 parts of the silverweed rhizomes upright, 2 parts of tansy flowers, 2 parts of peppermint leaves, 2 parts of Lyon grass and 1 part of celandine. 1 tbsp. collection pour a glass of boiling water, insist 30 minutes, drain. Take on 1 / 4-1 / 3 tbsp. 3 times a day 20 minutes before meals.
  4. Air. A teaspoon of crushed calamus rhizomes pour a glass of boiling water for 20 minutes and strain. Drink 1/2 cup 4 times a day.
  5. Radish juice: Grate black radish or chop in a blender, squeeze the flesh well. The resulting juice mixed with liquid honey in equal shares, drink 50 ml of solution daily.
  6. Take equally equal to chicory root, herbs of celandine, walnut leaf. Pour 1 tablespoon of the collection with 1 cup of water, heat for 30 minutes, cool and strain. Take 1 glass 3 times a day for cholecystitis and cholangitis.

One of the fees should be taken during the entire period of exacerbation, and then for one month, with breaks of up to one and a half months, at this time one plant should be taken that has either choleretic or antispasmodic properties.

Diet for chronic cholecystitis

How else to treat cholecystitis? In the first place it is strict food rules. In this disease, it is strictly forbidden to eat large amounts of saturated fat, so there can be no talk of hamburgers, french fries, fried meat and other fried foods, as well as smoked meats.

Some increase in meals is required (up to 4-6 times), as this will improve the flow of bile. It is desirable to enrich food with bran bread, cottage cheese, egg white, oatmeal, cod, yeast drinks.

Prohibited Products:

  • legumes;
  • fatty meat, fish;
  • chicken eggs;
  • pickled vegetables, pickles;
  • sausages;
  • spice;
  • coffee;
  • baking;
  • alcoholic beverages.

In the diet with cholecystitis, cholesterol-lowering foods should be preferred. You can eat:

  • meat and poultry (lean), eggs (2 pieces per week),
  • sweet fruits and berries;
  • from floury products recommended stale foods;
  • vegetables: tomatoes, carrots, beets, zucchini, potatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, eggplant;
  • vegetable oil can be added to the finished dish,
  • butter (15-20 g per day), sour cream and cream in small quantities;
  • sugar (50-70 g per day, along with added to dishes).

Dieting is necessary even for 3 years after an exacerbation of the disease or for one and a half years with biliary dyskinesia.

Forecast

The prognosis is conditionally favorable, with adequate treatment, the ability to work will be fully preserved. The greatest danger may be complications associated with the rupture of the gallbladder and the development of peritonitis. If it develops, even with adequate treatment, death is possible.

It is also necessary to pay great attention to the observations of the attending physician, since the clinical dynamics has its own characteristics in each particular case.

Watch the video: Gallbladder Problems: Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment Options - St. Mark's Hospital (November 2019).

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