Urobilinogen (mezobilubrubinogen) - a product of recovery of bilirubin. The latter is a bile pigment formed by the breakdown of heme-containing proteins. Thus, urobilinigeny result from the utilization of red blood cells. Urobilinogen is formed in the intestines of bilirubin, which got there along with the bile.
Urea is the end product of protein metabolism, and more specifically nitrogen of amino acids. Urea is produced by the liver during protein synthesis, is removed by the kidneys along with urine. The balance of this component in the blood makes it possible to judge the effectiveness of the kidneys, and any deviation from the normal concentration of urea should be alarming.
Creatinine is a product of a creatine-phosphate reaction. This substance is involved in the energy metabolism of tissues formed in the muscles and partially released into the circulatory system. From the body, it is excreted with the urine. Creatinine metabolism is a violation of the kidneys. A high degree of creatinine in the blood is a sign of renal failure at different stages, as well as hormonal disorders, diseases of various organs.
The term "total protein" refers to the total concentration of albumin and globulin in the serum. In the body, the total protein performs a number of functions: participation in blood clotting, participation in immune processes, the transport function of the blood, and others. This type of protein reflects the well-being of homeostasis, because thanks to proteins the blood has a certain viscosity, fluidity and, accordingly, a certain amount of blood is formed in the vascular bed.
Hemoglobin is part of the red blood cells. The content of this element is one of the most important indicators of blood composition. From his concentration depends on human well-being and performance. According to its structure, hemoglobin is a complex protein consisting of two main components: protein and iron directly.
Cholesterol is an organic substance, natural fat soluble alcohol. In the organism of all living beings, it is a part of the cell wall, forming its structure and participating in the transport of substances into the cell and back. Cholesterol exists as two: LDL or low density lipoprotein (LDL) is called “bad” cholesterol.
Hemoglobin is a complex iron-containing protein that is part of the blood erythrocytes. Takes part in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the cells of all organs and the removal of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. It can be immediately noted that a high level of hemoglobin indicates an increased blood coagulation, which is not a positive thing.
The abbreviation AlAT stands for blood index of enzymes alanine aminotransferase, AsAT - asparaginaminotransferase. Indicators AST and ALT are included in the study of biochemical analysis of blood. They were discovered in medicine relatively recently. Blood tests for AST and ALT are carried out jointly and, accordingly, their rate should be the same, and fully dependent on each other.
Hemoglobin is a complex chemical compound of a protein with an iron element that is present in red blood cells. The function of hemoglobin in the human body is one of the most important - it is involved in the delivery of oxygen molecules to all tissues and organs of the body. Oxygen is an indispensable element for the vital activity of a living being, it takes part in receiving and exchanging energy and carrying out reduction reactions.
Hematocrit is an indicator that determines the content of red blood cells (red blood cells) in its total volume. Measured in percent. Determined by a general blood test. Hematocrit determines the ability of the blood to carry oxygen to the tissues of the body. In adults, a lower hematocrit suggests that there is a risk of anemia.
Basophils are blood cells, which are formed in the bone marrow, then they enter the bloodstream, circulating in it for several hours, and then sent to tissues, where they stay for 8-12 days. This is the smallest leukocyte group, which is mainly involved in immediate-type allergic reactions.
Red blood cells - red blood cells - are normally non-nuclear biconcave cells in the form of disks with enlightenment in the center and a ring-shaped thickening along the edges. The erythrocyte ultrastructure is monotonous. Its contents are filled with delicate granulation (granule diameter 4-5 nm), which is identified with hemoglobin.
Erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet counts for the whole blood volume in the body are called hematocrit. Typically, this indicator is depicted as a percentage, less often - as a fractional number. The definition of this indicator provides an opportunity to see the presence of any disease and the degree of its development.
The smallest group of leukocytes are basophils, which perform many functions in the human body. In particular, they not only maintain blood flow in small vessels and provide the migration path to other white blood cells in the tissue, but also effectively influence the growth of new capillaries. If an adult has increased basophils in the blood, then it indicates the development of the disease - basophilia.
Esinophils are blood cells that belong to leukocytes and perform an extremely important function of protecting the human body. Immediately after they form in the bone marrow, the esinophils enter the bloodstream, and after a few hours pass into the tissues, where they function When an infection or inflammation occurs in the body esinophils penetrate to it and activate special receptors in the cells responsible for immunity.
Eosinophils are one of the groups of white blood cells (white blood cells). They belong to the neutrophilic series, but differ from neutrophils by certain features. They are a little bigger. Their kernels contain the smallest number of parts (usually 2-3). Under the microscope in the cytoplasm of these cells can be seen the corresponding copious granularity of an orange-pink color.
Monocytes are a group of cells belonging to leukocytes. They are responsible for the human immune system and perform several very important functions - they counteract the development of infections, fight parasitic microorganisms, tumor masses, and also dissolve blood clots. These cells have a strong effect on lymphocytes, which means on the entire hematopoietic system.
Monocytes are mature, large white blood cells containing only one nucleus. These cells are among the most active phagocytes in peripheral blood. If the blood test showed that monocytes are elevated - you have monocytosis, the lowered level is called monocytopenia. In addition to blood, monocytes are also found in large volumes in the bone marrow, spleen, liver sinuses, alveolar walls and lymph nodes.
Neutrophils are the most numerous part of leukocytes, whose task is to protect the human body from a variety of infections. They are formed in the bone marrow. As soon as hostile, pathogenic microorganisms enter the body, neutrophils immediately interact with them: they absorb and digest them, as a result of which they themselves also die (this ability is called phagocytosis).
Neutrophils are the largest group of white blood cells that protect the body against many infections. This type of white blood cells is formed in the bone marrow. Penetrating into the tissues of the human body, neutrophils destroy pathogenic and alien microorganisms by the method of their phagocytosis. The state when neutrophils are lowered in blood is called neutropenia in medicine.